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    Migraine vs. Headache: How to Tell the Difference

    Updated 27 August 2019 |
    Published 23 August 2019
    Fact Checked
    Anna Klepchukova
    Reviewed by Anna Klepchukova, Flo chief medical officer, UK
    Flo Fact-Checking Standards

    Every piece of content at Flo Health adheres to the highest editorial standards for language, style, and medical accuracy. To learn what we do to deliver the best health and lifestyle insights to you, check out our content review principles.

    Headaches are a common occurrence for just about everyone. Typically, a headache goes away on its own. However, when headaches start to affect your quality of life, it’s time to talk to an expert.

    Being able to distinguish between migraines and headaches equates to faster, more effective relief. Below, Flo covers the ins and outs of migraines vs. headaches, including effective treatment and management.

    What is a headache?

    Headaches are a widespread, well-documented ailment. The Egyptians recorded headaches as far back as 1200 B.C.

    Since then, medical researchers have learned a great deal about this phenomenon. Headache pain is often the result of pressure in the brain, and, according to the World Health Organization, nearly 50 percent of adults get headaches. 

    Headaches are a common occurrence for just about everyone. Typically, a headache goes away on its own.

    The degree of pain caused by headaches ranges from mild to severe and is typically felt on both sides of the head. Pain in the forehead, temples, and back of your neck may also occur. 

    Headaches fall into one of two categories. Primary headaches are not connected to any underlying disease, injury, or condition. They include migraine, cluster, and tension headaches. 

    By contrast, secondary headaches are linked to an underlying condition, such as a brain tumor, medication overuse, or meningitis. Triggers range from dehydration and caffeine withdrawal to injury and heart disease. 

    Women occasionally experience premenstrual headaches while on their period. Moreover, hormonal fluctuations prior to menopause can also cause headaches. In this case, they’ll likely disappear once you’ve entered menopause.

    Symptoms of a headache

    These are the most common symptoms of headache:

    • Dull, aching pain
    • Tightness, pressure, and pain on both sides of your head
    • Sore temples
    • Pain behind your eyes
    • Neck and shoulder tightness
    • Scalp tenderness 
    • Restlessness and irritability

    Types of headaches

    Doctors have classified over 150 diagnosable types of headaches (including sinus, tension, and cluster), with many potential causes, symptoms, and treatments. 

    Sinus

    The sinuses are a system of cavities located behind your forehead, nose, and upper cheeks. Sinus inflammation ‒ due to allergic reaction or infection ‒ leads to swelling, mucus production, and blockage.  

    Tension

    Up to 90 percent of all headaches fall under the category of tension headaches, which feel like a tight band squeezing your head. Triggers include stress, dehydration, anxiety, and depression. 

    Cluster

    Cluster headaches produce a burning, stabbing sensation behind one eye. They’ve been known to cause red-eye, constricted pupils, and drooping eyelids. As the name suggests, they present themselves in a cluster, or a period lasting anywhere from a few weeks to a few months. Remission periods, in which no headaches occur, will follow.

    What is a migraine?

    Migraines are recurring, long-lasting headaches that feel like a vise around your skull. Some report throbbing, pulsing sensations, usually on one side of the head. Lasting between four hours and three days, migraine pain is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Roughly 1 in 7 people worldwide have experienced migraines.

    “Migraines are recurring, long-lasting headaches that feel like a vise around your skull. Some report throbbing, pulsing sensations, usually on one side of the head.”

    One-third of migraine sufferers notice an aura before the onset of a migraine. From 5 to 60 minutes in length, these visual and sensory disturbances include partial vision loss or seeing zigzagging lines and flickering lights or spots.

    Left untreated, a migraine episode may continue for up to 72 hours. Frequency depends on the individual and can crop up sporadically or a few times a month. The primary causes have yet to be fully understood; however, environmental factors and genetics both play a role.

    Symptoms of migraine headache

    When it comes to migraines vs. headaches, symptoms of the former are generally more intense and could include:

    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Extreme sensitivity to light and sound
    • Visual disturbances
    • Tingling on one side of the face 
    • Tingling in one arm or leg
    • Difficulty speaking

    How to tell the difference between a headache and a migraine

    Headaches and migraines differ in length, intensity, region, and symptoms. Here are a few ways to distinguish tension headache vs. migraine pain. 

    With regards to intensity, migraines are generally worse. Regular headaches tend to be mild or moderate, while migraine pain is moderate to severe. Migraine sufferers have trouble performing daily tasks and might even require an ER visit.  

    Furthermore, while headaches are typically felt on both sides of your head, migraines will be confined to one side or the other. 

    “Headaches and migraines differ in length, intensity, region, and symptoms.”

    The symptoms of migraines vs. headaches also run the gamut. Whereas headaches produce a pressing or tightening sensation, migraines produce a pulsing, throbbing sensation. Additionally, migraine pain is exacerbated by walking, climbing stairs, and exercising.

    Headache treatment

    Most headaches can be treated with minor lifestyle changes and over-the-counter, anti-inflammatory drugs that reduce cranial swelling. Acupuncture and relaxing activities like yoga or meditation have also pr